Faecal Transplant refers to the process of transferring stool from a healthy person to a sick person. This can be done in many ways but the most commonly used methods are via colonoscopic infusion into the colon, via endoscopic infusion into the upper small intestine or via rectal enema.
Transplanting faecal material has an ancient history beginning as early as 4th century China, where human faecal suspensions were given by mouth to patients sick with food poisoning or severe diarrhoea.
We now understand that this process involves transferring the biologically active bacteria and bacterial metabolites from the faeces of healthy donors to sick recipients.
With the role of the gut bacteria in human disease now firmly in the spot light, FMT has had significant a resurgence with many studies now confirming it as a cure for pseudomembranous colitis. There is now renewed interest and studies underway on the possible role of faecal transplant in other conditions.
The role of Faecal Transplant has been firmly established as a proven medical treatment for pseudomembranous colitis, a severe condition of the bowel caused by infection with Clostridium difficile.
A number of studies have shown potential benefit of Faecal Transplant in both Ulcerative Colitis and Crohns Disease, as well as irritable bowel syndrome.
Other conditions that might be related to alterations in the gut microbiome such as obesity, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons, depression, Rheumatoid arthritis, primary sclerosis cholangitis and steatohepatitis have no medical studies to support the use of FMT as a therapy at this time.